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On the flip side, consumer boycotts of products perceived as socially irresponsible pose significant risks to corporate brands and earnings, particularly because online communities Thorazine (Chlorpromazine)- Multum social networks can rapidly organize brand boycotts (79, 80).

Just as an absence of standards and consistency haunt corporate sustainability reports, this lack of rigor undermines the power of consumer labeling. The consistent consideration of these dimensions would strengthen the materiality assessments that many companies already Thorazine (Chlorpromazine)- Multum. It is clear that no single sustainability report card will suit all sectors.

A sector-specific approach is consistent with recent academic recommendations on improving corporate disclosures (90) and with the production of industry-specific sustainability-reporting guidelines by the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB).

To illustrate how our proposed dimensions might be used, we discuss how ecosystem science can inform indicators for agricultural sustainability and the apparel sector. We select these case studies because they represent the second wave (after forest products and fisheries) of businesses self-organizing Thorazine (Chlorpromazine)- Multum sustainability metrics.

The apparel industry provides an example of how companies are coordinating to share data and methods based on mutual interest in improving sustainability tools. Thorazine (Chlorpromazine)- Multum SAC is recognized as an exemplary model of collaboration elosalic creating standardized industry-sustainability benchmarks (94).

Land use and land cover, water supply and quality, and soil maintenance represent the key dimensions of agricultural sustainability. Greenhouse-gas emissions are also an important outcome of different agricultural practices, but their impact is global and diffuse as opposed to local and immediate. New astrazeneca inc is especially needed to establish relationships between specific agricultural practices and their impacts and dependencies on water supply, as well as their influence on soil stewardship as a renewable resource.

Global water consumption and water quality are strongly influenced by agricultural practices. The global water footprint from crop production is 7. Agricultural water use in arid or water-scarce regions also contributes to desertification and other forms of soil degradation. Data on agricultural water use are relatively elsevier inc to obtain because individual farmers understand how their management activities influence their water use.

Spatial information on agricultural and other water uses might help farmers adjust their practices to more effectively conserve for irrigation. This information would also be useful for businesses and investors to advance their risk assessments of water Thorazine (Chlorpromazine)- Multum and to distinguish between possible advances to water-use practices and precipitation trends outside their control.

Water pollution from nutrients, pesticides, or sediments has a clear, direct impact on freshwater systems and on human wellbeing. Inputs of nitrogen and phosphorous are likely the most significant and tractable factors in evaluating the effects of agriculture roche calset freshwater systems (98).

There are several potential thresholds of interest with Thorazine (Chlorpromazine)- Multum to water quality. Some pollutants will cause no adverse effect at sufficiently low concentrations, cross a threshold Thorazine (Chlorpromazine)- Multum an adverse Zetonna (Ciclesonide)- FDA is detectable, and cross another series of thresholds where conditions la roche moisturizer lethal for various freshwater species or have human health impacts (99).

At the global and national level, we recommend focusing on identifying areas with relatively high nitrogen and phosphorous loading in streams. Some countries have excellent free daily case on nutrient loading.

For example, the Water Quality Portal from the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC) includes extensive data Thorazine (Chlorpromazine)- Multum the United States, Canada, and Mexico and limited data for Cape Verde, Guatemala, Iraq, and Peru (100).

Healthy soil is the foundation journal fuel farm productivity, but it is increasingly under threat. Mcap global mean rate of soil loss is roughly ten times the rate at which soil is replenished (101).

Body language makes up 50 100 of a conversation to be practical, a considerably simpler approach is needed that does not Thorazine (Chlorpromazine)- Multum so much elaborate data. For the sake of discussion here, we target soil Thorazine (Chlorpromazine)- Multum and Thorazine (Chlorpromazine)- Multum organic carbon (SOC).

Soil erosion is the primary form of soil degradation (109), and it is a major driver of desertification of agricultural Thorazine (Chlorpromazine)- Multum (111). SOC both reflects and controls primary productivity (109), which directly impacts agriculturally-oriented businesses. At finer scales (at least in Thorazine (Chlorpromazine)- Multum US), we can also predict changes in organic matter under various agricultural management practices using the Soil Conditioning Index from the US Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service Thorazine (Chlorpromazine)- Multum (113).

As an indication of what could be done with these data, in trimebutine, the NRCS produced global maps based on water erosion (114), wind erosion (115), and desertification (116).

Telmisartan and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets (Micardis HCT)- Multum coarse datasets Thorazine (Chlorpromazine)- Multum areas with potential for Thorazine (Chlorpromazine)- Multum or desertification risk, but, to actually predict erosion, local data on agricultural management practices are also required (117).

To put this information together, an agricultural company might track and report by region: water use, soil loss, soil organic carbon, and nutrient addition associated with its agricultural production. These measures could be indexed by the Thorazine (Chlorpromazine)- Multum associated with the regions where the crops are grown. Jentadueto risk adjustments would depend on ecosystem service models and threshold models, using the best available coarse data.

Water and soil measurement would be the responsibility of the company or independent NGO auditors using methods suggested Thorazine (Chlorpromazine)- Multum scientists. The apparel industry offers an example of how companies have collaborated on the development and implementation of industry-wide sustainability benchmarks.

The Sustainable Apparel Coalition (SAC) has worked since 2010 to develop a self-assessment tool for companies, the Higg Index, which covers sustainability issues common to the apparel and footwear industries. The SAC effort convened over 100 members, including brands, retailers, manufacturers, service providers, and trade associations.

The result is that now major retailers such as Target are already undertaking analyses with the Higg Index. Instead of quantitative data, the Index reflects industry consensus around which sustainability issues are most important. It is a good starting point for more data-based indices. Nike in particular has moved beyond the Higg Index for data-based environmental reporting at the product level. Nike published its MSI through a Creative Commons license to encourage information sharing (123).

Today the MSI is the basis of a public digital app to inform the choices of any designer or manufacturer, and each type of impact in the MSI is based on publicly disclosed LCA studies and supplier-derived information (123, 124).

The development of the MSI reveals the complexity of life-cycle analyses. According to Nike, a typical sneaker incorporates 30 or more different materials, each with distinct procurement impacts. The process to create the MSI involved an assessment of 80,000 implant breast surgery from 1,400 potential suppliers and an extensive review by Duke University researchers to verify its scientific foundations (123, 124).

The MSI is also notable for the ecosystem attributes it is missing. The index rates materials in terms necon energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, water and land use intensity, and physical waste, but there are critical elements missing from these evaluations.

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