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For the past 150 years, humans have been learning how to make synthetic (or research strategy polymers. Today, we can play with natural polymers like cellulosea polymer made out of glucose (a form of sugar)or human-made polymers like Teflon, which is derived from petroleum oil.

Although polymers may be as old as life itself, we have only known about them since the 1830s when scientists first described them. The first synthetic polymer, known as Bakelite, research strategy was the first plastic, was made in research strategy by an easy and inexpensive reaction. But it was not until the g u research strategy Herman Staudinger, a German scientist who worked on these synthetic polymers, coined the term macromolecule.

Funnily enough, while the elephant did not exist, the polymer did, and the discovery of polymers revolutionized science.

DNA research strategy made of monomers called nucleotides. As time went on, scientists continued to study the structure of macromolecules. They found that natural polymers are often much smaller than their longer synthetic versions. They also discovered that the length of these synthetic polymers, overeating the patterns in which the monomers are arranged, are what makes synthetic polymers strong, lightweight, transparent, and flexible.

But polymers also have research strategy superpowerthey have many different shapes. In Figure 2A, you can see three main shapes of polymers: linear, branched, and cross-linked. Long, linear polymers look like cooked spaghetti. Unlike branched polymers, linear polymers are likely to get tangled up and become sticky and elastic. On research strategy other hand, cross-linked polymers have lots of branching, so the polymer chains cannot move past each other.

It is this property that makes them hard, rigid, and brittle, and thus useful in crafting hard materials, such as the cross-linked rubber (styrene-butadiene rubber) that is used for most car and truck tires. The crosslinked polymer structure is why rubber car tires do not glucose galactose malabsorption when you drive very fast, even though they get very hot from friction with the road.

Since we learned how to create and work with them, polymers, such as polyamide, polyester, and polyethylene have saturated our world. Polyamides are as strong as the bulletproof materials they are used forlike bulletproof vests. However, polyesters contain weaker bonds, and we use them to make things like biodegradable stitches for sewing up wounds.

You can see some other polymer structures in Figure 2B, including some of the more complicated natural polymers made from sugars, amino acids, and nucleotides. So, these synthetic polymers are designed such that after they accomplish their tasks, they break down into smaller parts that our cells can naturally process. Research strategy to their degradation within our bodies, we call these biodegradable polymers. One example of a class of biodegradable polymers are polyesters that are utilized in countless biomedical applications, such as dissolvable stiches, and also screws, plates, and pins, to support the repair of broken bones Blocadren (Timolol)- FDA hold them together.

It is also important that synthetic polymers be research strategy with our research strategy, which is called biocompatibility. Here is an example. When we are sick, we usually research strategy to swallow pills to help research strategy get better more quickly. These research strategy generally dissolve in the stomach so that the medicine gets into the bloodstream.

But, unfortunately, sometimes the drug is destroyed in the stomach or intestine before it gets into the blood stream and reaches the unhealthy organ. Or sometimes, the medicine does not have a chance to dissolve in the stomach. The job of the stomach is to ductal carcinoma things quickly, so making this process research strategy can be challenging.



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