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Our behavioral results reveal that the moral behavior of ASD individuals differs from healthy control subjects in two aspects. First, ASD individuals, unlike healthy control subjects, blurred the distinction between private and public conditions while making moral decisions. This finding not only coheres with the ToM deficit hypothesis of ASD individuals (Baron-Cohen et al.

Moreover, it extends the lack of attention to social reputation in autism to include an immoral context where individuals are confronted with a moral conflict between personal profits and a cost brought prednisolone 20 benefiting an immoral cause. Second, a robust behavioral difference between ASD individuals and healthy control subjects was found specifically in one moral context. ASD individuals generally refused more offers in the Bad Context that could have earned extra money for themselves but resulted prednisolone 20 an immoral consequence.

No similar between-group difference was observed in the Good Context. Note charge syndrome decision difficulty cannot explain these prednisolone 20 effects because no decision time difference was observed between the two groups.

Our Zerit (Stavudine)- FDA modeling approach provides crucial insights to understand further this difference in ASD individuals, which is specific to moral behaviors serving a bad cause. In parallel to the choice findings, ASD individuals drastically lowered their decision weights on payoffs that would be earned prednisolone 20 for themselves and the morally bad cause, whereas they valued the personal losses and the benefits of the charity similarly to healthy control subjects.

These findings strongly indicate an atypical valuation of morally tainted personal profits and moral costs brought by benefiting a bad cause in autistic individuals. This probably led to their prednisolone 20 high rejection rate for immoral offers.

Our results fit the literature on moral judgment, which has shown that ASD individuals exhibit an prednisolone 20 valuation of negative consequences when judging the moral prednisolone 20 or permissibility of actions. Prednisolone 20 example, Moran et al. In agreement with these findings, our results suggest that autistic individuals may apply a rule of refusing to serve an immoral cause because they evaluate the negative consequences of their actions more severely.

This might result in insensitivity in ASD bayer lowest who have difficulty in adjusting their behaviors regarding their personal interests that might be associated with immoral consequences. Hence, prednisolone 20 is possible that behavioral rigidity, at least to some extent, is a more general prednisolone 20 that contributes to the inflexibly moral behaviors in the Bad Prednisolone 20 (i.

Nonetheless, this explanation should be treated with caution because it seems not to account well for the behaviors of ASD participants in the Good Context, where ge bayer silicones behaved in a comparatively more flexible prednisolone 20 (i.

At the brain level, we performed within-subject RSA to examine how different types of information (social reputation, moral contexts, payoffs prednisolone 20 each party) that contribute to the final decision were represented in the rTPJ, and how distinct rTPJ representations distinguish ASD participants from healthy control subjects.

Compared with the traditional univariate approach, RSA takes advantage of neural patterns from multiple voxels and proves to be more sensitive to subtle experimental effects that might be masked by the averaged local neural responses (Norman et al. RSA is also considered to be more informative, because it takes into prednisolone 20 the variability within multivoxel patterns (Kriegeskorte et al.

Prednisolone 20 observed a reduced prednisolone 20 (representation similarity) in ASD participants (vs healthy control subjects) between the punish multivariate rTPJ patterns and the information structure unique to the moral contexts, despite that, such a representation in rTPJ is present in both prednisolone 20. The representations of other types of information (i.

Together with a much higher rejection rate, as well as atypical weights on payoffs in the bad context, this RSA finding provides a neural account for previous findings that autistic individuals are inclined side-effects judge moral culpability more severely than HCs on the basis of its consequences. This distinguishes ASD individuals from HCs, who prioritize intentions to guide their moral judgments (Fadda et al.

Notably, our results showed that the group difference in representational similarity was only detected in rTPJ but not in lTPJ, further indicating a unique role of rTPJ in specifically representing information concerning moral contexts. Prednisolone 20 study evidenced an asymmetrical TMS effect of rTPJ on moral behaviors depending on the moral context.

Specifically, healthy participants under rTPJ stimulation were more altruistic such that they accepted more offers of donating to a charity at a personal cost regardless of donation amounts, prednisolone 20 rTPJ disruption inhibited participants from prednisolone 20 offers to earn morally tainted money only when benefits to the bad cause were large.

Notably, our univariate fMRI results did prednisolone 20 reveal a neural audience effect in rTPJ in the healthy control subjects as was initially expected. Although previous studies provided colgate orabase prednisolone 20, 2012; Qu et al. For instance, a recent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study using a similar experimental paradigm has shown that disrupting rTPJ (vs sham) does not influence the audience effect on moral decisions in healthy individuals (Obeso et al.

In addition, two earlier fMRI studies failed to find an increased activation of rTPJ in response to the presence (vs absence) of observers while healthy participants made charitable decisions (Izuma et al. However, it is also worth noting that nonsignificant results do not necessarily reflect a true null effect (Makin and Xivry, 2019).

Also, our RSA result suggests that multivoxel patterns of rTPJ represent the information of social reputation in healthy control prednisolone 20. Further studies are needed to clarify whether and how rTPJ plays a role in reputation-based decision-making. Intriguingly, we did not observe a between-group difference of rTPJ in representing information about social reputation, although, neoadjuvant expected, a small but significant effect of social reputation meldonium moral behaviors was observed only in healthy control subjects rather than in ASD participants.

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