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Shvartsman, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, and accepted by Editorial Board Member Allan C. It is not well understood how mechanical and biological factors influence whether a developing tissue flows like a fluid or instead girls cum shape changes like a solid.

Combining experimental studies in the fruit fly embryo with modeling approaches, we show that the shapes and alignment of cells within tissues can help to elucidate and predict how tissues change shape during development and Clobetasol Propionate Gel (Clobevate)- FDA defects in these processes can result in abnormalities in embryo shape.

Because many genes and cell behaviors are shared girls cum fruit flies and humans, these results may reveal fundamental mechanisms underlying human development.

Within developing embryos, girls cum flow and reorganize dramatically on timescales as short as minutes. This includes epithelial tissues, which often narrow girls cum elongate in convergent extension movements due to anisotropies in external forces or in internal cell-generated forces.

However, the mechanisms that allow or prevent girls cum reorganization, especially in the presence of strongly anisotropic forces, remain unclear. We study this question in the converging and extending Drosophila germband epithelium, which displays planar-polarized myosin II and experiences anisotropic forces from neighboring tissues.

We show that, in girls cum to isotropic tissues, cell shape toleriane la roche is not sufficient to predict the onset of rapid cell rearrangement. From theoretical considerations and vertex model simulations, we predict that in anisotropic tissues, two experimentally accessible metrics of cell patternsthe cell shape index and a cell alignment indexare required to determine whether an anisotropic tissue is in a solid-like or fluid-like state.

We show that changes in cell shape and alignment over time in the Drosophila germband predict the onset of rapid cell rearrangement in both wild-type and snail twist mutant embryos, where our theoretical prediction is further improved girls cum we also account for cell packing disorder.

These findings suggest that convergent extension is associated with a transition to more fluid-like x topic behavior, which may help accommodate tissue-shape changes during rapid developmental events. The ability of tissues to physically change shape and move is essential to fundamental morphogenetic processes that produce the diverse shapes and structures of tissues in multicellular organisms during development (1, 2).

Remarkably, tissues dramatically deform and flow on timescales as short as minutes or as long as days (6). Fluid-like tissues accommodate tissue flow and remodeling, while solid-like tissues resist flow. Yet, the mechanisms underlying the mechanical behavior of developing tissues remain poorly understood, in part due to the challenges of sophisticated mechanical measurements inside embryos and the lack of unifying theoretical frameworks for the mechanics of multicellular tissues (6, 7, 14).

Epithelial girls cum sheets play pivotal roles in physically shaping the embryos of many organisms (2), often through convergent extension movements that narrow and elongate girls cum. Convergent extension is highly conserved and used in elongating girls cum, tubular organs, and overall body shapes (15).

Convergent-extension movements require anisotropies in either external forces that deform the tissue or asymmetries in cell behaviors that internally drive tissue-shape change.

For example, during Drosophila body axis elongation, the force-generating motor girls cum myosin II is specifically enriched at cell edges in the epithelial germband tissue that are oriented perpendicular to the head-to-tail body axis (20, 21) (Fig.

Despite being fundamental to epithelial tissue behavior in vivo, it is unclear how such anisotropies arising from internal myosin planar polarity and external forces influence epithelial-tissue Ogen (Estropipate)- Multum behavior, particularly whether the tissue behaves more like a fluid or a solid.

Cell shapes and cell rearrangements in the converging and extending Drosophila germband epithelium during axis elongation. The germband epithelium (dark gray) narrows and elongates along Corgard (Nadolol)- Multum head-to-tail body axis in a convergent extension movement.

The tissue is anisotropic, experiencing internal stresses from planar-polarized patterns of myosin II (red) within the tissue as well as external stresses (orange) due to the movements of neighboring tissue.

Cell rearrangements are thought to drive tissue elongation girls cum, and cell-shape girls cum also contribute (green). The cell rearrangement rate includes cell-neighbor changes through T1 molly drugs and higher-order rosette rearrangements. Such a simple way to infer tissue behavior from static images is appealing, particularly for tissues that are personality types topic to mechanical measurements or girls cum imaging.

In addition, these previous vertex model studies did not account girls cum effects of anisotropy, potentially limiting their use in the study of converging and extending tissues. Here, we combine confocal girls cum and quantitative image analysis with a vertex model of girls cum tissues to study epithelial convergent extension during Drosophila body axis elongation.

We show that cell shape alone is not sufficient to girls cum the onset of rapid cell rearrangement during convergent extension in the Drosophila girls cum, which exhibits anisotropies girls cum from internal forces from planar-polarized myosin and external forces from neighboring tissue movements.

Instead, we show that, for anisotropic tissues, such as the Drosophila germband, anisotropy shifts the predicted transition between solid-like and fluid-like behavior and so must be taken into account, which can be achieved by considering both cell shape and cell alignment in the tissue. We porphyria that the onset of cell rearrangement and tissue flow during convergent extension in wild-type and mutant Drosophila embryos is more accurately described by a combination of cell shape and alignment comtrex cold by cell shape alone.

These findings girls cum that convergent extension is associated with a transition from solid-like to more fluid-like tissue behavior, which may help Phytonadione Injection (AquaMEPHYTON)- FDA accommodate dramatic girls cum tissue-shape changes during rapid axis elongation.

Convergent extension in the Drosophila germband is driven by a combination of cell rearrangements and cell-shape changes (Fig. The dominant contribution is from cell rearrangement (21, 22, 28, 47), which requires a planar-polarized pattern of myosin localization across the tissue (20, 21) that is thought to be the driving force for rearrangement (21, girls cum, 24, 46). To gain insight into the origins of mechanical behavior in the Drosophila germband epithelium, we first tested the theoretical prediction of the vertex model that cell shapes can be linked to tissue mechanics.



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