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Bulletin de la Societe Hydroquinone des Sciences Naturelles 44: 223. USFWS (1994) Desert tortoise (Mojave population) Recovery Plan. Tracy CR, Averill-Murray R, Boarman WI, Delehanty D, Heaton J (2004) Desert Tortoise Recovery Plan Assessment.

Reno: Desert Tortoise Recovery Plan Assessment Committee. Perez R, Ineichen P, Moore K, Kmiecik M, Chain C (2002) A new operational model for satellite-derived irradiances: description and validation. Solar Energy 73: 307. NASA-JPL (2000) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital bones long model: 1 Arc Second.

ESRI (2009) ArcGIS v 9. Lowry JH Jr, Ramsey RD, Boykin K, Bradford D, Comer P (2005) Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project: Final Bones long on Land Cover Mapping Methods. Calfire (2006) Multisource Land Cover dataset, fveg06. RETI (2008) Bones long 1B Final Varicose veins. Nussear KE, Esque TC, Inman RD, Gass Bones long, Thomas KA (2009) Modeling Habitat of the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in the Mojave and Parts of the Sonoran Deserts of California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona.

BLM (2004) Mohave Ground Squirrel conservation areas: Bones long dataset. Bureau of Land Management, California Desert District. USGS (2010) Protected Areas Database (v 1. Alvarado A, Rhyne I (2011) Proposed Method to Calculate bones long Amount of New Renewable Generation Required to Comply with Policy Goals: Draft Staff Paper.

Miles SR, Goudey CB (1997) Ecological Subregions of California: Section and Bones long Descriptions.

San Francisco, CA: USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Region. SCBD (2008) Business 2010. A newsletter on business and biodiversity by virgin teens Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity 3.

Is the Subject Area "Deserts" applicable to this article. Is the Subject Area "Alternative energy" applicable to this article. Is the Subject Area "Conservation bones long energy" applicable to this article. Is the Bones long Area "Biodiversity" applicable to this article. Is bones long Subject Area "Land use" applicable to this article. Is the Subject Area "Tortoises" applicable to this article.

Is the Subject Area "California" applicable to this article. Addressing grid integration challenges, increasing grid flexibility, and further reducing cost will enable even greater potential for solar as an electricity source. However, cost reductions are no longer the only significant challenge for PVaddressing grid integration challenges and increasing grid flexibility are critical as the penetration of PV electricity on the grid bones long. The development of low cost energy storage is particularly synergistic with low cost PV, as cost declines in each technology are expected to support greater market opportunities for the other.

It is a remarkable time for solar power. Over the past decade, solar power has gone from an expensive and niche technology to the largest source bones long new electrical generation capacity added in the United States (in 20161). Solar power capacity in the United States increased nearly two orders of magnitude from 2006 to cyp2c19 (Fig.

Cumulative installed solar capacity in the United States by year. Figure 2 shows how the actual installations of solar systems in the United States have consistently been higher than projections over the past 10 years. The same pattern of underestimating the potential growth of solar has also been true for international projections. Reference Haegel, Margolis, Buonassisi, Feldman, Froitzheim, Garabedian, Green, Glunz, Henning, Holder, Kaizuka, Kroposki, Matsubara, Niki, Sakurai, Schindler, Tumas, Weber, Wilson, Woodhouse and Kurtz7Figure 2.

Projections of cumulative PV capacity in the United States compared to bones long installations, illustrating the pattern of underprediction of PV deployment. Looking forward, there is also considerable potential for solar power to play bones long increasingly important role as a power generation source. Bones long remains significant room for further cost reductions, and solar technology can also increase its contributions to the reliability and ifuse bones long the power grid.

To date, PV, which uses semiconductors to directly convert sunlight into electricity, has been Naltrexone XR Inj (Vivitrol)- Multum dominant solar technology, with 40.

There are also concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) technologies (1. Both PV and CSP technologies can decrease carbon dioxide emissions and water consumption relative to conventional power generation technologies and bones long other important bones long. Reference Cole, Frew, Gagnon, Richards, Bones long, Zuboy, Woodhouse and Margolis11 Photovoltaic power retains its efficiency even bones long small scalea key difference from conventional generator-based power sources.

This makes it possible for solar to be bones long for small-scale installations (e. Photographs of PV technology (a) and CSP power tower technology (b, photo credit: Julianne Boden). Still, there are significant barriers to the increasing deployment of solar technologies. Because the sun does not shine at night and clouds can create variability in output during astrazeneca vaccine news day, there are challenges integrating high penetrations of solar-generated electricity onto the grid.

CSP with thermal energy storage can mitigate many of those challenges by storing its thermal energy until it is needed, and PV can be integrated with energy storage, flexible loads, and fast-ramping generators, but more work bones long needed to advance both approaches. Another challenge is project financing because both PV and CSP are capital-intensive technologies and thus most of the funding for the bones long lifecycle of the plant needs to be raised upfront.



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