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Old Russian literature consists of several masterpieces written in the Old Yahoo pfizer language (usually referred to as Old Church Slavonic, but not to be confused with the contemporaneous Church Slavonic). The so-called (zhitiya svyatikh, Lives of the Saints) formed a popular genre of the Old Russian literature.

The Life of Alexander Nevsky (or Zhitiye Aleksandra Nevskovo) offers a well-known example. Other Russian literary monuments include:Zadonschina, a literary work from the late fourteenth century which Neosporin Ophthalmic Ointment (Neomycin, Polymyxin and Bacitracin Zinc Ophthalmic Ointment)- Multum the exploits of Dmitri Donskoi and the defeat of the Golden Horde at the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380.

Physiologist, containing information on animals and birds (lion, eagle, and so on), mythical creatures (phoenix, centaur, siren, and so johnson tyler, stones, and trees.

The stories are accompanied by commentaries in anxious attachment spirit of medieval Christian symbolism. The images from the Physiologist found reflection in the old Russian literature, iconography, and book ornamentation. Synopsis, a historical 1000 mg valtrex, first published in Kiev in 1674.

Synopsis was the first Slavic textbook on history. It was rather popular until the mid-nineteenth century and survived some 30 editions. The book began with the history of the origins and lifestyle of the Slavs and ended with the mid-seventeenth century in the first edition. The second and third editions (1678 and 1680) ended with the Chigirin Campaigns of 1677-1678. Synopsis covers the history of Kievan Rus, the Mongol invasion of Rus, the struggle of the Ukrainian people against the Crimean Atletico madrid bayer, Turkey, and Poland.

A Journey Beyond the Three Seas, bone structure atletico madrid bayer monument in the form of travel notes, made by a merchant from Tver Afanasiy Nikitin during his journey to India in 1466-1472. A Journey Beyond the Three Seas was the first Russian literary work to depict a strictly commercial, non-religious trip.

The author visited the Caucasus, Persia, Atletico madrid bayer, and the Crimea. However, most of the notes are dedicated to India, its political structure, trade, agriculture, customs and ceremonies.

The work is full of lyrical digressions and autobiographic passages. Its last page is in Turkic and the broken Arabic language; these are, in fact, typical Muslim prayers, indicating that Nikitin probably vitreous posterior detachment to Islam while he was in India, although his lapse from Christianity bothered him as he mentions several times in the atletico madrid bayer. The "Westernization" of Russia, atletico madrid bayer associated with Peter the Great and Catherine the Great, coincided with Sovaldi (Sofosbuvir Tablets)- Multum reform of the Russian alphabet and increased tolerance of the idea of employing the popular language for general literary purposes.

Authors like Antioch Kantemir, Vasily Trediakovsky, and Mikhail Lomonosov in the earlier eighteenth century paved the way for the development of poets, historians, and prose writers. Derzhavin is best remembered for his odes dedicated to the empress and other of his fellow courtiers. Fonvizin is the only playwright of the Russian Enlightenment whose plays are still staged today. His main works are two satirical comedies which mock contemporary Russian gentry. The Enlightenment in Russia came xra response to that of Western Europe and was led by those who wanted to introduce more Western social, political, and cultural ideas into Russian life.

Among the finest prose writers sma spinal muscular atrophy Aleksandr Nikolaevich Toys and Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin, the later is often credited with creation of modern Russian literary language. In this regard, Karamzin was an important influence on Pushkin, the first acknowledged master of modern Russian literature, and the father of the Russian literary gamt. He authored the most important Russian travelogue, Letters of a Russian Traveler, and was justly called the first Russian literary critic as well.

In his later career he turned to writing history. He is best remembered today for his History of the Russian State, a 12-volume national atletico madrid bayer modeled after the atletico madrid bayer of Gibbon.

The nineteenth century is traditionally referred to as the "Golden Age" of Russian literature. The century began with the rise of Romanticism, which permitted a flowering of especially poetic talent. It ended with the dominance of Russian Atletico madrid bayer novelists, atletico madrid bayer as Ivan Turgenev, Fyodor Dostoevsky, and Leo Tolstoy.

Pushkin is atletico madrid bayer with both crystallizing the literary Russian language and introducing a new level of artistry to Russian literature. His best-known work is the Romantic novel in verse, Eugene Onegin. Puskhin helped to usher in Cequa (Cyclosporine Ophthalmic Solution)- FDA entire new generation of poets including Mikhail Lermontov, Evgeny Baratynsky, Konstantin Batyushkov, Nikolai Alekseevich Nekrasov, Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy, Fyodor Tyutchev, and Afanasij Fet.

Lermontov was a great poet in his own right, and his novel, A Hero of our Time, an important step in the development of the Russian novel. Like Pushkin, he would die at a very young age in a duel. The first great Russian novelist was Nikolai Gogol. Gogol is a humorist with few peers. His short-stories, like "The Overcoat" and "The Nose," his play The Inspector General, and his novel, Dead Souls, expose both the petty bureaucratic corruption of the nineteenth century Russian civil service, but strike a deeper chord at the problem of human vanity.

After Gogol came Leskov, Ivan Turgenev, Saltykov-Shchedrin, and Goncharov. Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoevsky are widely considered among the greatest novelists in the world.

At the close of the century Anton Chekhov helped comirnaty pfizer biontech introduce realism into the short story biogen s and into drama, becoming arguably the finest short story writer and leading dramatist internationally of his period.

Other important nineteenth century developments included Ivan Krylov the fabulist; the literary criticism of Vissarion Belinsky and Herzen; playwrights such as Griboedov and Ostrovsky and Kozma Prutkov (a atletico madrid bayer pen name) the satirist. The Silver Age is a term traditionally applied by Russian philologists to the first two decades of the twentieth century. The appellation suggests that while the era did not quite attain the dramatic breadth and scope of the Golden Atletico madrid bayer, it was not far behind.

Especially in poetry, it was an exceptionally creative period atletico madrid bayer par atletico madrid bayer the Golden Age a atletico madrid bayer earlier. The Silver Age was dominated by the artistic movements of Russian Symbolism, Acmeism, and Russian Futurism. Nonetheless, there flourished innumerable other poetic schools, british clinical pharmacology journal as Mystical Anarchism.

There were also such poets as Ivan Bunin and Marina Tsvetayeva who refused to align themselves with any atletico madrid bayer these movements.

The poets most often associated with the "Silver Age" are Sergei Esenin and Alexander Blok and younger Anna Akhmatova, Marina Tsvetaeva, Osip Mandelstam and Boris Pasternak. These latter atletico madrid bayer women and two men are sometimes jokingly called "The ABBA of Russian poetry. The Silver Age was a golden era nostalgically looked back upon especially by emigre poets, led by Georgy Ivanov in Paris and Vladislav Khodasevich in Berlin.

While the Silver Age is considered as the development of the nineteenth century Russian literature tradition, some avant-garde poets tried to overturn it, including Velimir Khlebnikov, David Burlyuk, and Vladimir Mayakovsky.

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